Wednesday, October 24, 2018

Grey water report

Water conservation refers to the preservation, control and development of water resources, both surface and groundwater, and prevention of
pollution in meaning so 71% of earth is water but only a little part of it is good to use. Water conservation is a worldly issue that will become a
big problem in the furter when finish using the water instead of wasting it  or throwing it away these water from the washing machine, shower and
sinks could be reused and recycled to water our native plants. Grey water is the name of these used water and it has the meaning of the relatively
clean waste water from baths, sinks, washing machines, and other kitchen appliances. The reason grey water has become a part of the
water conservation issue is due to all wasted of pertenusal useable water and in using budget ingredient to For this experiment we have
conducted it the use four of native plants which are Melicope ternata (Wharangi)
A New Zealand round coastal shrub was once known for its edible gum. Melicope ternata yields an edible gum that was used for chewing as it sweetens the breath for halitosis sufferers. It is growing in
the coastal forests of New Zealand. Small yellowish green scented flowers develop in early spring followed by brown capsules each with 4 small pods containing one black shiny seed from late spring to
late summer. These are eaten by birds. This shrub is slightly frost tender and grows to about 5 m in height. Pseudopanax arboreus (Five finger) This is one of New Zealand’s most common native trees
found from Cape Reinga to Bluff in lowland forests.It has large leaves divided into 5-7 leaflets. Pseudopanax arboreus is fast growing with small purplish black berries in autumn. The leaves are a favourite
food of the possum New Zealand's main forest pest. Hebe elliptica (Kokomuka) It is naturally occurring in coastal & mountain situations in the North, South, Stewart, Snares, Auckland and Campbell Islands
of New Zealand. It is widely cultivated. Dysoxylum spectabile
It is found in lowland and coastal forests throughout most of North Island and also occurs in the Marlborough Sounds in the north of the South Island. Kohekohe forest used to be common in damp coastal
and lowland areas in the North Island, but these forests have mostly disappeared because the land was used for settlement or they were browsed by possums.  Kohekohe produces panicles of scented
white flowers directly from the trunk or branches.This strange habit is called cauliflory. The pinnate leaves are large and glossy. Kohekohe flowers are an important and favoured source of floral nectar
for Tui and Bellbird. Maori boiled the bark in water and drank it as a tonic. The wood was used for building canoes but the wood is soft and not as durable as hardwoods and tends to rot quickly.
It is valued for carving. (information from
How is leaf growth of four native plant affected by grey water irrigation? And which of the four native is the most suitable to grow with reused
or grey water?
Hypothesis: (what you expect to find out and why)
I think Hebe elliptica (Kokomuka) will have the biggest amount of leaf increase due to the size making it easy to fully form then the rest as well as such
plant also appears with the most leaf when seen around the community.

  • Independent Variable :  Plant species are Melicope ternata, Pseudopanax arboreus, Hebe elliptica and Dysoxylum spectabile.
  • Dependent Variable : Measurement counting the leaf from the tallest brach.
  • Controlled Variable : Same type and amount of Soil, Plant pot and Grey Water and set in the same Environment.

The experiment started with 36 seedling 9 of 4 type of native plants moved into a seperate pot with a 12cm diameter and 10 cm depth.
Each pot labeled into three separate group such as ‘controlled’ meaning tap water, non eco-friendly detergents and eco-friendly
detergents. Grey water preparation included adding:
3 squirts of liquid hand soap
11 grams shampoo
1 ml vegetable oil
2.8 grams budget laundry powder (non ecofriendly) OR 5ml Eco-friendly liquid detergent
Place into container, add 1 litre of tap-water and mix

Plants were watered with 100ml of the treatment water once a week of 39 days measurements were taken.
The measurements included: Number of Leaves - were count only on the tallest branch from ground until stem must only count completely
formed leaf. All plant kept in a secured environment at the temperature of 20 degrees.

Describe where the plants were kept throughout the experiment.

The results of the native plants named Hebe elliptica var. crassifolia is lower than experienced yet could be renewed due to the uncertainty
nor the range.
The Kohe kohe has a great outcome prove that grey water does gives a maracuous increase to such plant.

Melicope ternata has two change in the average of the leave changes yet the uncertainty of the tap water is
quite wild making it hard the consulate the trusted outcome.

Pseudopanax arboreus has a similar results to Melicope ternata over all the average number maybe different but but there is quite between grey
water and tap water are quite similar.

 Conclusion   .
In conclusion the plant with the most positive effect towards grey water was Kohe Kohe with 2.3 difference in the average of
leafs numbers, then Melicope tarnata with 2.0, Pseudopanax arboreus with 1.6 and Hebe elliptica var. crassifolia at the least
with 0.3. Disproving the Hypothesis.


The constant city of the data may be affected by the natural variation or the growth rate of individual plants which contributed to
the large variation in leaf number between the treatments from grey water to tap water and the way to improve or reduce the
outcome by repeating the experiment by increasing the amount of seedling to reduce the variance of the data.

Thursday, August 2, 2018

Genetics Basics

Learning Objectives

Define the terms DNA, Chromosome, Gene, Heredity
Describe the role of genes
Explain the difference between acquired and inherited traits
Give an example of acquired vs inherited traits
Describe continuous variation and discontinuous variation

Bill Nye Videos

What are genes responsible for?
They are our traits in organism.
What are genes made of?
Sort GENE, DNA and CHROMOSOME in order from smallest structure to largest.
How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have?
How many genes do humans have (approx’.)
80,000 (Bill Nye)
If a eye cell has the same chromosomes as a skin cell, why don't we have eyes on our skin?
Skin cells will only read the gene for skin cells and same for the eyes.
Where are chromosomes found in a cell?
Around the nucleus.
What are chromosomes made of?

Inherited Traits Slideshow

Slide 3: define heredity -

What traits do you have in common with (a relative)
How we look like.
Eyes colour, bone structure, wavy hair, personality.
Read through slides 6-10

Slide 14: Explain the difference between acquired traits and inherited traits then give an example of each (for you).
Acquired are not use down for generation but inherited traits are.
Acquired trait are what you down will your lifestyle and environment.

How much of David Liti’s success is due to inheritance (nature) and how much is due to acquired traits (nurture) - justify your answer.
Inheritance = Body shape/ bone structure.
Acquired = Working out or having a fair amount of protein.
Variation - the differences that exist within or between species

Continuous Variation: a variable that you can measure e.g. height, nose length, distance between
the eyes
Discontinuous Variation: a variable that has discrete categories e.g. Blood, eyes, tongue rolling,  

Collect Data from 5 individuals on the two types of variation.

Eye colour
Milk Brown
Dark brown
Grey blue

Social Inquiry Skills

Mg and Acid Experiment

Aim: To investigate the effect of the concentration of acid on time for acid on time for Mg to dissolve.

Hypothesis: As the concentration of HCl increases the time taken to dissolve will decrease.

The out coming result was 0.35 second which is how long it took to fully dissolve.

Time taken to dissolve
5 mins




As the concentrations increased the time taken to dissolve decreased. Between 1 and 2 HCl the time taken decreased by 86 secs and between 2 and 3 molL decreased by 9 seconds.


Time taken to dissolve
5 mins




The consistency of the data changed as the HCl concentration got lower as shown on the results the
HCl acid was consistent on the high concentration and had gotten less consistent as it was less
Validity of method / was it a fair test? No as some of the experiment was held differently such as
holding, shaking and placing the test tube on the beach.

To improve the method we all should hold, place or shake to make sure the test tube are getting the
same conditions. Some of the change the may affect the experiment by holding it may change the
temperature of the acid, by shaeing the adicd the knowen affect is that the acid may sprend over the
magnisum and placing it on the

Creative Science AND Science Experiment

Aim/Question:To measure the height, weight and age distribution of two specific commonwealth sports. Do these things give a higher advantage?
Hypothesis:We think height, weight and age will have a major impact on winning or losing.
The simple answer is NO
There are many different skills involved in volleyball and basketball. Some require being tall and
others require being small so therefore there is no advantage and it is all up to nature, training and
teamwork. Out of 58 matches both men and women all games looked to have been won by
teamwork not height, weight or age. For our graphs we measured the average characteristics.
(Volleyball)For males they were 1.93cm, 88-89 kg and an age range of 29-31 years. For females
they were 1.77-1.79cm, 66-68 kg and an age range of 27-29 years. (Basketball) For males they
were 1.90-2.00 we did not measure the average characteristics for females.
Link to  Volleyball Graphs:
Link to Basketball Graphs:
Beach volleyball players are older and have smaller characteristics when compared to indoor
volleyball players. Male players present similar age and height. Women who play at higher levels
have higher values of age, weight and height. This is the same for basketball you have to train hard
and work hard to achieve at a high standard. It doesn't matter how tall you are. Height Distribution
Has no advantage

We trust that the results from our experiment are true because we got them from an international
website. We think We made it fair because both sports were similar in height and age. When we
measured our results we saw a very similar height distribution but even though these people are tall
they do not have an advantage over winning. We repeated this research with a different sport to see
if there was an advantage in height distribution. Our hypothesis proved us wrong height, weight and age doesn't have any advantages.